Skin wrinkles are the two major groups: 1-static wrinkles or wrinkles on the surface of the skin caused by aging and other environmental factors such as air pollution and being exposed by sunlight and the gravity and various diseases. 2 -Dynamic skin wrinkles caused by shriveling muscle in doing things such as pouting, laughing, shrugging eyebrow and the other facial movements .The therapeutic approach to each of these types of wrinkles are different. Botox plays a role in treating the second type wrinkles or wrinkles caused by muscle movement. This drug can treat these wrinkles with temporary paralyzing facial muscles
Botulinum toxin is extracted from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This is the same toxin that caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria buildup in cans of processed foods and it is potentially very dangerous and lethal. In 1987, the researchers during treatment of a patient with Blepharospasm or an eyelid muscle stiffness caused with this toxin, realized the smoothness of eyebrow frown lines. They follow their observations, and in 1992 the first report was published about the use of Clostridium botulinum toxin in the beauty treatment for frown lines of eyebrows. Since then, the rate of consumption of this drug has had a uptrend and progressive, in a way that now is the most common method of beauty treatment around the world and billions of dollars are spent annually to do it
Botox is in two clinical forms, BTX-A and BTX-B that BTX-A is available in forms of Botox-Allergan and Dysport-Ipsen and BTX-B is available in a myobloc form in the market.All health and beauty applications are accomplished with the injection of BTX-A and BTX-B is mostly used in research and laboratory studies.
The effect of Botox usually starts within three days after the injection and this effect will be completed within 15 days. The duration of the drug effectiveness is about 5-6 months and then it is required to repeat the injection. It is better to re inject as soon as wrinkles return but usually the injection intervals turn longer in next injections and sometimes these intervals increase to once in each year. With Botox injections, aside from the lack of ability to muscle contraction, individual habits such as pouting with using eyebrow and forehead movements to show the feelings that create wrinkles; gradually become weaker and less effective. By repeating Botox injections, the strength of these muscles decreases and later the person will leave these habits more easily.
Botox injections alone is usually effective in the treatment of mild to moderate wrinkles. The treatment of people with deep lines are combination of methods in order to gain better treatment results. These common and helpful actions include the use filling substances (like gels), chemical peeling and exfoliation with microdermabrasion and laser therapy. There is a point should be noted here that the people who choose this treatment ,should have reasonable and realistic expectations and they must not expect to remove all wrinkles in one session of Botox treatment or no need of other treatments are not based on facts and practicality in many cases.
Apart from the repairing the wrinkles, this drug has applications in relieving diseases caused by muscle spasms, excessive sweating of hands and armpits and even eliminating migraine and tension-type headaches
An important point in injecting Botox is the skill of the specialist in detecting the extent of problem and estimating the amount of drug needed for treatment
One of the side effects of Botox injection is mild bruising and bleeding at the site of injection. There will be corneal dryness rarely or vice versa tear falls, mild pain or irritation on a temporary basis that all these effects are short-term and reversible. There is a possibility of drug distribution and paralysis of adjacent muscles with using a high dose of the drug or massaging the injected area that this accompanied with the asymmetry of two sides of the face. Also the high amount of injection causes the failure of complete movements of facial muscles and the face becomes lifeless and dull. That is why it is better that patients do not insist on asking their doctors for more injections in order to neutralize all the facial movements and trust the expertise and experience of doctors in recognizing the amount of medication needed to prevent such undesirable results. With one muscle paralysis, it is also possible that a person contracts the adjacent muscles unconsciously to express his/her feeling and for example it is likely to remove the wrinkles and muscle contradictions around the eyes but there will be more wrinkles on person’s nose. Prevention and treatment of this case also depends on the doctor's experience and capabilities. In people who have narrow upper lips or the high distance between their nose to upper lip, Botox injections can escalate this case and causes an unpleasant appearance. Those with lip corners drawn to low sides normally and have a Mona Lisa smile, they might also look odd with Botox injections. In people whose up and down gums appear when talking or laughing , Botox injection can give them emoticon appearance . It should be noted that many of the above complications following Botox injections will appear in the lower half of the face and perhaps that is why US food and Drug Administration (FDA) has allowed Botox injection only in the top half of the face and for injection in lower half of face or neck has not issued any license. Of course, now some doctors also consider all aspects of the treatment of these areas as well. Botox is a dangerous poison though but itself is not toxic and dangerous unless handled in more amounts than the usual dose that with specialist‘s awareness and no need to do so, overdoing is almost unlikely possible
Botox contraindications include: pregnancy, breast feeding, neuromuscular diseases and skin diseases such as eczema or psoriasis or any skin surface infections at the site of injection and finally the history of allergy to medication